Teaching Resources Or Teaching Aids To Enhance Teaching For The Desired Social And Behavioural Changes
Teaching Resources Or Teaching Aids To Enhance Teaching For The Desired Social And Behavioural Changes
Many authors have written on teaching resources or teaching aids to enhance teaching for the desired social and behavioural changes. Specifically, it was emphasized that the use of teaching resources is a sine-qua-non in affecting behaviour of learners in every field. Teaching resources are important catalysts of social re-engineering and change in learners and effective instruction cannot be well accomplished without the use of teaching resources. Advances in technology have brought teaching aids to the forefront as the most radical tool of globalization and social development which have affected the classroom teaching-learning situation positively.
According to Nelson (2004), the term facilitation is broadly used to describe any activity which makes tasks for others easy or tasks that are assisted for example making an action or process easy. Facilitating the teaching of electrical installation is therefore a process of promoting or improving the teaching of electrical installation.
Awotua-Efebo (1999) defined teaching as a process of making learning take place. Teaching is an act of inspiring, engaging and empowering our children and young people. The relevance of teaching as a profession has great impact on the learner in influencing the future development and growth of a learner.
Thakur (1998) defined electrical installation as fixed assembly of associated electrical equipments within a building or structure supplied from a common origin to fufil a specific purpose and having certain co-ordinated characteristics. It can be simply seen as any assembly of electrical equipment supplied by a common source to fufil a specific purpose. While electrical installation is an oriented subject, the teaching of electrical installation often requires creativity and improvisation to make the concepts understandable and comprehensible to the students. Electrical installation teachers must employ creative teaching methods and effective teaching resources and be able to demonstrate in a typical manner the concepts of electrical installation so as to impact all the necessary information to the novice students in their classes.
Bolick, Berson, Coutts and Heinecke (2003) defined teaching resources as teaching aids used to enhance teaching and learning. Teaching resources are integral component of teaching and learning situation, it is not just to supplement learning but to complement its process. It is then shown that if there must be an effective teaching-learning activity, effective utilization of the available teaching resources will be necessary, for one thing, to provide the teacher with interesting and compelling platforms for conveying information since they motivate learners to want to learn more and more and helps in producing an intended result as well. Furthermore, the teacher is assisted in overcoming physical difficulties that could have hindered his effective presentation of a given topic. Teaching resources generally make teaching and learning easier and less stressful. They are equally indispensable catalyst of social change intellectual development of learners
The Concept of Teaching Resources
The concept of teaching resources has gone beyond simple aids, instructional technology and media to communication and educational technology. Teaching resources include those objects that are commercially acquired or improvised by the teacher to make conceptual abstraction more concrete and practical to the learner, hence the relevant materials utilized by the teacher during an instructional process for the purpose of making the content of the instruction more practical and less vague.
Orakwue (2000) asserts that teaching resources are not just objects or equipments used during teaching-learning process but they are those objects improvised by the teacher to make teaching more concrete and practical to the learner. Teaching resources are relevant materials utilized by the teacher during teaching to ensure the proper understanding and assimilation of the topic at hand by the use of form or illustration that seems desirable and depict the real situation of the audience. The practical justification is that it is an instrument for accelerating the pace of all human transformation.
Whenever student are taught with these learning aids they get more stimulated because the learning aids helps the students to become more attentive in addition, students positive attitude generate more interest for the lesson they teach. As a results students participate better in activity. In line with the above statement, Bozimo (2002) further expresses that the perculiar nature of electrical installation makes it possible and necessary for great variety of resource aids and methodologies to be employed in the teaching and learning of electrical installation.
It is a settled fact that a very important mission of teaching electrical installation and other related field are not only to stimulate the desired behaviour in learner but equally to facilitate knowledge and skill development. The use of appropriate tools of instruction such as resource aids speed up the accomplishment of these objectives. (Chinedu, Nwanna, Nzewunwa and Michael 2005).
The term resource aids or teaching aids have been conceptualized by different authorities but the fact still remains that instructional materials or teaching aids facilitate teaching and learning situation. ESU (2004), resource aids refer to “all resources within the reach of the teacher and the leaner which are employed to facilitate teaching and learning. It therefore follows that such materials may be human and non-human provided they facilitate the acquisition and evaluation of knowledge, skills attitude, moral and values”.
Orakwe (2000) opined that resource aids are mainly objects of any type which the electrical installation instructor might deem very necessary or adequate in delivering his lessons. They form part of what we normally call teaching aids.
He further maintained that resource aids are more objects of help in the successful delivery generally. Electrical installation requires practical skills on the side of the student so as to represent themselves fully in their field of work but it will definitely remain worthless without the use of instructional materials.
From the above definition of resource aids, one can conclude that resource aids are those objects, materials and things improvised by the teacher to concretize conceptual abstraction in learning. Resource aids are any media which promotes perceptions, understanding and transfer of knowledge and retention of aids.
Awotua-Efebo (1999) said that resource aids are what help the students to realize their learning objectives. Instructional aids as act of giving help normally by teacher to provide help and encouragement in students or pupils learning activities. It can also refer to all tools which can easily be used by a teacher to correct wrong impressions and to illustrate things and concept that learners cannot forget easily (Ema & Ajayi 2004).
Good (1999) defined resource aids as any device used for the purpose of carrying out instructional content or function that is used for teaching purposes. Specifically in electrical installation, such resource aids includes: Cable, joints, testers, switches, lamp holders, bulbs or Lamps, clips, installation gadgets, pipes, sockets, junction boxes and so on from these perspective we can reaffirm that the term resource aids would include any material, tools, or equipments that a teacher can profitably use to facilitate teaching and learning by his students. Resource aids are valuable assets in learning situation because they make lessons practical and realistic. Knowledge acquired through the use of instructional aids is retained longer than one acquired without learning aids.
Principles and Requirements for the Selection of Teaching Resources or Teaching Aids.
There are many teaching aids available and from various sources equally. It is therefore very important that teachers bear in mind that every teaching aid has its definite unique strength in teaching by the use mother. It is necessary to note that through effective communication, better teaching and faster learning can only be facilitated or guaranteed by careful selection and skilful utilization of appropriate teaching resources by users.
However, availability of the teaching resources, teachers experience, terms of preference and the volume of instructions should constitute the intrinsic consideration in their selection decision. Despite of that fact, the following principles should guide teachers in selection of teaching resources.
The behavioural objective, contents, learning activities, evaluation instruments and techniques as element of instructional tasks should be taken into cognizance by teachers in the selection of instructional materials.
Target Audience Attributes:
These consists of the learners’ features and their level of understanding, their developmental stages such as age, sex, physical skills, attitude towards self and others, the learners experiences, socio–economic background should be considered.
The available resources, financial factors, technological advancement, economic climate of the society where the materials should be operated, the socio-cultural level of the material users, degree urbanization, feasibility and acceptability of the selected instructional materials are equally considered in the selection decision .
These variables constitute the concentration and size of the target audience, the desired level of learners response and participation, the classroom social climate, sitting, viewing and listening arrangement, available time, space, teacher competence among others are to be seriously considered in the selection decision.
The Environmental Factors
These consists the educational community and the available educational infrastructure. Such as people facilities, equipped library, workshop, laboratories, electricity, water supply and personnel should equally be considered in the selections of teaching resources. Emma and Ajayi (2004) identified five criteria for the selection of teaching resources as follows: Behavioural objectives, the structure of subject matter, learning style Practicability, Availability and Teacher’s capability.
Guidelines and Requirements for the Use Teaching Resources.
Once teaching aids have been selected, careful preparation comes first by the user and the subsequent preparation. Anyanwu (2003) identified three ways by which the teacher should prepare for the use of instructional materials to teach as follows:
i. By Previewing:
Before any instructional material is brought to the class, the teacher has to have a first knowledge by using it herself before the class.
ii. First Knowledge:
The teacher should have a full knowledge of the parts, names, operational level of the intended instructional materials
iii. Actual Presentation.
This is the period the teacher operates and uses these materials in instructing the students. The following however, are the basic guidelines and requirement for utilization and use of teaching aids.
Specification of Objectives:
Clear objectives which are behaviourally stated are user ring guides in instructional materials using process, they direct the sequence, methods content and techniques of instructional studies. They provide scientific basis of valid evaluation instruments, construction and administration.
Maximal fit with Instructional Task:
Instructional materials must be appropriate to situationally determine the individual responses.
Preparation and Preview:
For effective and successful use of instructional materials, for proper teaching-learning situation, the teacher must in advance prepare himself, the learner and the environment, the materials as a matter of must should be previewed by the teacher in order to follow its process of presentation sequentially.
Proper and creative use of a variety of teaching resources at different level of lesson planning can be adequate in achieving various instructional objectives, reason because it will enrich variety of learners mind as they attain better goals more easily than with the use of a single medium.
The environmental variables such as physical, cultural and social in which the teaching resources are utilized for learning have significant effect on their effectiveness. Sound-motion films for instance with their attention-complexity properties can be successfully presented in less quiet environment
Measure for outcomes:
Teaching resources should be evaluated in terms of their suitability, practicability to the instructional objectives, appeal to the cost effectives, learner achievement level, consistency with content call for improvement in utilization techniques etc.
Importance and Uses of Teaching Resources.
Abujaber (1997) asserts that, the importance of teaching resources to teachers widens the channels of communication between teachers and their students. He further maintains that the instructional materials allow the growth of specific learning abilities and enhance intellectual skills and major skills the use of chart and models enables the teacher to present and illustrate many physical and phenomenal issues easily and at the same time, allows them to focus attention on the characteristics of objects
Adeyanju (1990) learning can be reinforced with learning aids of different variety because they stimulate, motivates, as well as well arrest learners’ attention for a while during the instructional process. Teaching aids improve methodology and also reduce talk and chalk method. Whenever the students are taught with teaching aids, they get more stimulated because the learning aid help them to become more attentive. In addition students positive attitude generate more interest for the lesson they teach as a result students participate better in class activity.
Bozimo (2002) “the importance of instructional materials lies on the fact that abstract ideas, data or information expressed in printed pages become tangible and concrete when they are translated or reflects in forms of teaching aid and resource aids. Teaching aid enables the leaner to comprehend the interrelatedness of knowledge and unity of various subjects. The resource materials will also be such that can unambiguously reveal the dynamic nature of man and society.
In concrete terms, ICT as instructional media has enhanced teaching and learning through its dynamic interactive and engaging content. It has provided real opportunities for individualized instruction. Information and communication technology has the potential to accelerate, enrich and deepen skills, motivate and engage students in learning, help to relate school experience to work practices, help to create economic viability for tomorrows workers, contribute to radical changes in school, strengthen teaching and provide opportunities for connection between the school and the world. Information technology can make the school more productive and efficient, thereby engendering a variety of tools to enhance and facilitate teachers professional activities (yusuf 2005).
Generally, the importance and the usefulness of teaching resources are explained under the following points
• Stimulation of interest
• Concretize abstract issues or topics
• Creates effective communication
• Used for mass instruction and taking care of wide audience
• Providing meaning and useful sources of information to teachers and learners
• It helps in developing a continuity of reasoning and coherence of thought
• It saves time and reduce verbalism or repetition of word
• It is used to improve teaching methods
• To promote closer relationship between the community and school.
Stimulation of Students Interest
In teaching-learning process, there is need to generate, arouse, motivate and maintain students interests. If the learners’ interest is build properly, learning can take place effectively. As the instructional materials have the potentials if effectively used for regulating the pace of information flow among different class of learners under the same classroom. It addresses individual differences. Students are aroused with the nature and the beautiful appearance of the materials which will make them to settle down and learn with what the teacher had improvised to teach. Learners find pictures and objects interesting and it gives them clear ideas of the topic at hand. This has resulted in further activities and comprehension of verbal materials.
Concretize Abstract Issues or Topics.
The use of teaching resources makes learning real, practical and more permanent to the learner. It makes conceptual abstraction more meaningful.
ESU (2004) states that teaching resources are valuable in learning situation because they make lessons practical and realistic. They area the pivots on which the wheels of the teaching learning process rotate. Since it concretize issues, it then facilitate revision (recall) activities and provides very unique opportunities for self and group evaluation for the teacher and the students alike. It captures the students’ intellect and eliminates boredom, makes the work easier, neater, boosting for clarity and more appeal.
Creates for Effective Communication.
Teaching resources if properly used allow for a flow and transmission of ideal form the teacher to the students and likewise from the students to the teacher or from one group to the other. The learners will be able to see, touch, spell what is been talked about by the teacher and be curious to ask questions that would be very helpful for effective evaluation (formative) of the teacher and instructors in a particular subject area..
Use for Mass Instruction and Taking Care of Wide Audience.
With the use of projected and electronic materials such as television, overhead transparencies and computer especially, instructions are packaged in a very broad manners and which take care of wide range of learners in a classroom with less stress and time. Many students will be able to learn faster as the package takes care of various learners interest at the same time. Teacher can handle a very large class conveniently as the teacher is guiding and displaying the instructional materials on the wall with the use of projector.
Providing Meaningful and Useful Sources of Information to Teachers and Learners.
Teachers are up to date and able to provide for reliable and useful information for the learner with the use of instructional resources, it can effectively be used to ultimate, shorten information from various sources for the purpose of comparison and contrasting ideas. It helps in perception and retention of information or knowledge.
It Helps in Developing a Continuity of Reasoning and Coherence of Thought.
The use of instructional materials helps the learners on providing integrated experience which may vary from discipline which makes the end product of education more production. Since students are exposed to real nature of those concept or body of knowledge for the proper application in their daily lives.
It Saves Time and Reduces Verbalism of Words
Romiszowski (1995) assert that “figurative speaking teaching resources enables the teacher to be in more than one piece at a time and to address several issues at a time. It reduces verbalism or repetition of word by the teacher without knowing their meaning and also adds Varity in reinforcing verbal message by providing a multi-media approach. Instructional material, frankly speaking reduce the level at which the teacher should strive himself in the process of talking rather he guides the process of the instructions. And as a result save his time in the process of teaching.
They are used to Improve Teaching Method.
The teachers perfect not only on their methods of teaching but also perfect contents and situations (activities) to be taught. With the use of instructional material, the teachers are able to edit, try and retry, alter and delete his activities to fit the standard of the students, also to effectively address the curriculum objectives. Instructional materials if properly utilized helps in giving direct contact with the realities of the learners both social in any physical environment.
To Promote Closer Relations Between the Community and the School.
Teaching resources help to promote closer relationship between the community and the school. It helps the students to internalize the situational issues happening around his totality, the student will be able to identify crucial issues and address these issues if properly inculcated with the use of teaching resources..
The Teaching of Electrical Installation
Electrical installation is a special course or subject area incorporated in the curriculum for electrical installation and maintenance practice (NBTE, 1982). It is actually a practical aspect of the curriculum, designed for students in technical college and universities.
The teaching of electrical installation should mainly involve practical activities rather than theoretical aspects. This is to provide adequate manipulative skills and knowledge for the students who may wish to join the labour market. This course is primarily designed to prepare students to enter and progress in a career as an electrician in industrial, commercial and residential applications also with the installation, maintenance and repair of electrical equipments. The basic electrical installation skills, safety in and electrical environment is stressed as an integral part of the workshop task. Students who are successfully trained as electricians became liaisons between professionals and craftment, (Justine 1999)
The teaching of electrical installation requires the teachers’ in-depth knowledge about the concepts and teacher resourcefulness in making provisions for alternative resources where there is insufficient resources in the workshop. This takes us to improvisation of resource aids so as to effectively teach electrical installation.
Objectives of Electrical Installation:
Ashley (2004) highlighted the following objectives of electrical installation as follows.
1. To provide the students with entry- level knowledge and manipulative skills for employment in the electrical industry
2. To help students understand the minimum, essential and manipulative skills necessary for participation in and completion of all core aspects of the curriculum
3. To produce students who will become beneficial to the entire society
Also the content of the curriculum of electrical installation should include the following
1. Identification of symbols in electrical engineering
2. Drawing of installation diagrams and positioning of accessories on a drawing.
3. Surface wiring which involves identification of size of cables, explanation and application of surface wiring.
4. Conduit wiring and its regulations, identification of accessories
5. Selection of basic tools for installation of cables
6. Installation of protective devices such as fuses and circuit breakers.
7. Inspection and testing of domestic installations
8. Types of industrial installation
9. Installation of ducts and trunkings
10. AC and DC machines
11. Maintenance of electrical equipments and machines
12. Repairs of electrical machines, equipments and installation
(Technical colleges curriculum for electrical installation)
The curriculum can be achieved by the means of combining theory with workshop activities as an efficient means of developing the skills that are essential to the electrical trade. Safety is stressed as an integral part of workshop task. The curriculum programmes allow the student to identify their careers objectives and participate in programme exploration.
The teaching of electrical installation is a competency based programme especially for programmes in electrical industry and maintenance practices. The curriculum development project involved identifying career opportunities, determining the skills (tasks) required for each job and analyzing each task for necessary competencies and performance criteria by the students. Therefore teachers of electrical installation should try as much as possible to make effective utilization of the available resources to facilitate the teaching of electrical installation so as to provide the basic skills and knowledge of electrical installations to their students.
The Available teaching Resources to Effectively Teach Electrical Installation.
The available teaching resources to effectively teach electrical installation includes the following
1. The physical resource aids
2. The human resource aids
3. The financial resource aids.
The Physical Resource Aids
Physical resource aids are the resources that are made by man through his abilities and skills which help man’s daily activities become easier. The buildings, technology workshop and its products are made by man. Well equipped workshop and classrooms are essential for this practical oriented subject. If possible using the facilities of the school to teach electrical installation or teachers making improvisation where the school facilities and equipments are not available can help to effectively teach this course. Teachers can make an extra effort to make provision for teaching learning purpose on their own attempt to facilitate the teaching of electrical installation. Some of these facilities that need to be improvised includes: switches, circuit boards, technical manual, safety fuse, electrical tool kits e.t.c.
The Human Resource Aids
Human resources include the number of qualified personnel or teachers to each electrical installation in a school. Since the most important resources in any organization are its human resources. Appropriate human resources assure an organization that the right number and kind of people are available at the right time and place so that the organizational needs can be met.
Qualified and competent teachers who are to teach electrical installation will play a vital role in helping the student deal with fast changing competitive environment and the world of work. Generally, the human resources play the following role in effective teaching of electrical installation.
1. Manages the implementation and integration of technology.
2. Apply new approaches to teaching and learning.
3. Increase the innovation, creativity and flexibility necessary to enhance competitiveness.
4. Develop competencies that enhance students performance.
5. Typing performance appraisal and compensation to competencies.
6. Effectively manage and utilize students.
The Financial Resources Aids
Financial resources includes all the aspects of improvisation that has to do with money and how the teaching of electrical installation is being financed. The institution should make provision for consumables during practicals, for maintenance of physical resources and purchasing of new equipments and facilities to replace the worn out or old ones.
Problems associated with the use of instructional materials
It has been identified that using teaching aids to facilitate learning or instruction is not the issue, but how to use it and its availability to use. Teaching aids or instructional materials especially with the modern innovation are grossly lacking and faced with a lot of problems in its use by the teachers (Jarolinek 1995). Some of these revealing problems in the foregoing includes.
1. Teacher’s Professional Knowledge and Technical Know How:
Teachers knowledge have a great impact on the effective application of teaching aids or instructional materials, this is because the teacher uses need to understand the sequential presentation of the instructional gadgets so as to suit the interest of the learners and its appropriateness with the instructional tasks
Ololube (2007) maintained that inadequate teacher preparation programmes cause the majority of teachers inability to demonstrate adequate knowledge and understanding of the structure, function and development of the disciplines. Therefore an effective teacher education programme is a prerequisite for a reliable education which lends confidence to both teachers and students when learning is coordinated effectively and professionally.
2. Environment factors:
Part of the application of teaching aids process is the target population for whom the materials are to be used and the sitting or vicinity where the learning should take place, the degree of satisfaction derived by students in respect to comfortability of environment of their learning situation is of great deal. For instance, teaching versatility of electrical installation content in a very remote area where there is no availability of electricity and probably part of the contents may require projected materials, this will come to be very difficult to accomplish learning.
3. Time constraint
Time is also a serious problem or factor that impede the effective use of instructional materials in effective instructional delivery in the class, because in most cases, the time that is allotted for a subject on the time table might not be enough for the teacher to present his content alongside with effective use of the materials which will affect the wholesome delivery of the content
4. Financial Constraint
This factor seems to be handicap why most educational institutions are unable to acquire relevant teaching equipments and materials. It has also adversely affected the quantity and quality timing and these products- students and teachers will lack the opportunity to learn to use new techniques in the field. There are sophisticated teaching aids or teaching resources that can make learning easier and faster such as computer aided programme but lack of funds has effects on its importation and use in school. The unsatisfactory funding for teacher education programmes stands one of the major factors working against effective implementation of the programmes.
5. Poor maintenance culture:
Materials available for effective instructional delivery are poorly manhandled by both teachers and some school authority. Schools are affected by non-availability of resource room for proper keeping of both the locally manufactured and the commercially purchased teaching aids thereby limiting its use as the time needed.
6. Unavailability of the teaching aids:
Another pressed issue about teaching aids or teaching resources for use is that, the materials are grossly lacking in schools. However, creativity and improvisation are the watchwords in any successful application of instructional materials but some teacher still fail in improvising for materials that are not available.
Conclusion and Recommendation
After all said and done, as a professional teacher who is curious of effective instructional delivery will agree with the paper that teaching aids or resources are not just gadgets such as chalkboards, textbooks, chalk but every necessary resources and objects a teacher develop and improvised for use in the process of instructional delivery to concretize his lesson for effective and more reliable understanding by the learners about the abstractive concept of his content
However, in view of this paper, the following recommendations are eminent:
• Teachers are encouraged and should endeavor to commit themselves into the effective use of teaching aids or resources in all their instructional delivery.
• The teacher being the main vessel through which planned and unplanned activities can be achieved should realize the need for improvisation if the cost of purchasing already made one is too high.
• The use of resources should reflect the aspect of lifelong learning ie pre-school, during-school and after-school experiences in order to ensure effective application of knowledge in a holistic manner.
• The kinds of teaching aids selected and used by the teacher should portray life situation around the learner’s total environment.
• Teachers should avoid overload and unclear descriptions of resource kits in order to avoid a defeated objective of the resources.
• School administrators should make effort in providing for teaching resources and monitor teachers in process of teaching and learning.
• Teachers should develop positive attitude towards the use and maintenance of the materials available in their schools.
• Development and selection of improvisation of teaching aids could also be done concurrently with the students such as project or group assignment of designing a certain gadget of learning.
• Teachers should be conscious of the suitability of the kinds of resources used for a particular subject area, topic, methodology and most importantly the learners in question.
• Teachers should always endeavour to update their knowledge in the area of educational, technology in order to expose them to the modern technological apparatus and how to manipulate their functions.
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Teaching Resources Or Teaching Aids To Enhance Teaching For The Desired Social And Behavioural Changes