Job Performance – Effect Of Recruitment Pattern In Nigeria Public Corporations
Job Performance – Effect Of Recruitment Pattern In Nigeria Public Corporations
The success or failure of any institution is generally attributable to the caliber of its workforce, and quality depends mostly on how the recruitment exercises were conducted, which in turn depends on the staffing policy of the Organization.A Company’s most important resources or asset in its human resources. Their importance cannot be ever emphasized. A company’s success or failure, in final analysis, mostly on the quality of its workforce.
However for an organization to acquire the services of the right caliber of manpower, its recruitment policies must be sound. For example, requisite qualification, experience, i.e. excellent performance at the interview for such vacant of positions. Generally, recruitment is the process of evaluating obtaining commitment from placing and orienting new employees to fill vacant position or the successful conduct of work in an organization.
Job performance, therefore, entails the way the employee actually performs the job, task and responsibilities given to him and the result of the effects in achieving the overall corporate objective of the organization. This study investigates recruitment process and job performance in Ebonyi State water corporation, Abakaliki.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The recruitment process and Job performance in Ebonyi State Water Corporation Started from 1996, when Ebonyi sate was created. The first governor of Ebonyi, a sole administrator- Ltd Col. Walter Falgabor appointed the Board of Director, who foresees the affairs of the organization. Workers were recruited based on ideas regarding the activities and responsibilities required in the organization. Recruitment policy was not established in the organization. Workers were recruited especially labourers for adequate functions of the Organization. Inexperience workers were recruited which led to poor performance of the organization at a beginning. This water corporation aimed at providing social services like water for the state.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
The study is to investigate recruitment pattern and Job performance in Nigeria Public corporations especially recruitment of experience workers necessary for the achievement of organizational objective. This has been identified as one of Major problems facing Ebonyi State Water Corporation.
When recruitment policy is not strictly adopted due to political influence, corruption, ethnicity, unsuitable candidates is recruited to hold position he or she is ignorance of, thereby solving the seed of inefficiency. This brings about poor works attitudes and channel of communication in an organisation will be blocked due to he or she lack administrative skill to carry the organisation along.
Beside the statement of problem, the following research questions were posed?
(1) What is the recruitment pattern in Ebonyi State Water Corporation?
(2) What is the relevance of this recruitment pattern in Ebonyi State Water Corporation.
(3) How do these recruitment pattern affect job performance in Ebonyi State Water Corporation
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The general objective of this study is to create insight into recruitment and how it affects Job performance in the personnel
management of public service, especially Ebonyi State Water Corporation and to ascertain the most efficient way of recruitment, which will leads to Job performance in Ebonyi State Water Corporation.
However, the objective of this study also includes:
(i) To determine how workers are recruited in Ebonyi State Water Corporation.
(ii) To determine method or process used in recruiting workers in Ebonyi Sate Water Corporation.
(iii) To ascertain why the method is adopted by people responsible for the recruitment in Ebonyi State Water Corporation.
(iv) To find out the recruitment pattern in Ebonyi Sate Water Corporation.
(v) To evaluate the method used in recruiting workers and how it is acceptable by people responsible for it.
(vi) To identify the relevance of recruitment in Ebonyi Sate Water Corporation.
(vii) To know patterns of the recruitment and how it affects Job performance in EBWC and in Nigeria as a whole.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The researcher of this nature can help the whole public corporations in Nigeria as a whole especially, Ebonyi State Water Corporations to Adopt the best recruitment policy which will enhance efficiency and job performance in their organizations.
This researcher work also can be benefited by Administrators, consultant agencies, managers in both public and private sectors, Civil Service Commissions etc. for adopting the best recruitment process/method which will help them for recruiting the best caliber of people that will increase productivity in their different organizations.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study is limited to the recruitment and job performance in Ebonyi State Water Corporation, Headquarter Abakaliki from 1999 to 2004 when the Organisation was established.
1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The researcher in the process of gathering information and relevant fact face some naturally and man-made constraints such as:
(i) Time factor, owing to the fact that this study is carried out within the time the researcher is battling in her semester work, she could not have enough time to gather some information and materials reached for the work at its disposal.
(ii) Lack of finance, the researcher as a student still depends mostly on the goodwill of the parents and sponsor for the reached finance. As a result of this the resources available at its disposal for the research work is not enough. It therefore handicapped her from getting asses to all the reached materials for the study.
(iii) Materials resource: the researcher find it difficultly to reached some textbook, journal, thesis to carried out the work, due to inability of the researcher to cope with time and finances to carry out the time assign task.
(iv) Human Element, this study has some human element, and such cannot be said to be perfect. It base on the concept of reasonable assurance, despite the existing limitation of the study, the researcher assumes that all the information obtains is the best of her knowledge.
1.7 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
The theoretical framework of this research work will be based on the Taylor’s principles of management otherwise known as the “One best way”. Scientific management is a term designed to designate a body of theory and practice, directed towards more efficient and rational performance in organisation. The birth of scientific management is known by Frederick W. Taylor.
This theory is applicable to the organisation and research of this nature. Taylor emphasized that if people will be carefully recruited, and selected, trained those workers according to the work assigned to them, motivate those workers and provide good working environment for them. That they will put in their efforts to achieve efficiency and effectiveness of the organization, which will lead to job performance of the organisation.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The terms used in this study which have unique meaning that would be subjected to different interpretations by different readers of this projects report are defined as follows:
(a) Recruitment: Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organisation.
(b) Job performance: It entails the way the employees actually performs the job, task and responsibilities given to him and the result of the effects in achieving the overall corporate objective of the organization.
MEANING OF AN ORGANISATION
An organization is the association of two or more individuals working cooperatively to achieve a common goal. According to Scoh (1968) and Mitchell (1985), “Organization is a system of co-ordinated activities of a group of people working co-operatively towards a common goal under authority and leadership
According to Ukeje etal (1992) the word organization connotes two concepts:
(i) An entity, a group and
(ii) A process.
Organization as an entity includes, government ministries, churches, schools, clubs, civil service organization. They are composed of people, with definite purpose or purposes to achieve and they all have some type of structures that delimit and define the behaviour of (people) their members.
SBK (1973: 268) defines organization as an entity, to mean “a group of people bound together in a formal relationship to achieve organizational goals”. An organization is defined as a coordinated efforts of two or more people pursing a shared purpose. Put differently, formal organization is defined as consciously constituted and systematically operated group of people that bind themselves together for the purpose of achieving a definite objective or purpose. In other words when people consciously gather formally agree to combine their efforts for a common purpose, an organization is the result.
According to Ezioni (1964), organization may be defined as a social group that has been deliberately constructed in order to achieve certain specific goals. Chester Barnard (in Hall, 1998) defined organization as “a system of consciously co-coordinated activities or forces of two or more persons”. To him, activities are accomplished through conscious deliberate and purposeful co-ordination. It requires communication, willingness on the part of members to contribute to a common purpose.
According to Scott, organization are defined as collectives that have been established for the pursuit of relatively specific objectives on more or less continuous basis
However, one can see from the various authors that organization is something static that must accomplish objectives. Thios involves getting people together and a lot of creative activities. Organization is one of management’s most significant activities affecting human relations because it determines which people will have authority over others, what work will be done and the type of contacts they will have.It provides the framework within which other human relations forces, such as leadership, unions and employees come to interaction, (Osuala 1996). As a management function, organization is a process of arranging resources primarily people in order to carryout plans and thereby attain the objective of organization. According to Osuala, people create organization because they expect to derive some utility, value or service from them. Hence organizations have missions, purposes, goals or objectives separate from the personal wants of their members, such as food, shelter and status. It is then necessary for these personal wants to be integrated with the organizational goals in a relationship of mutual interest so that personal wants and organizational mission may be reached.
2.1.1 PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT
The history of personnel started during the period of industrial revolution- 1800 to 1900. During these periods, there was massive unemployment because the newly invented machines have performed with hand. However, newly established industrial organizations were located near the area where the source of every was provided. The energy came mostly from falls at the river banks. All these happened in Great Britain where industrial revolution started. The unemployment problems gave rise to industrial relations problems. Hence, workers stated organizing themselves to seek their rights.
In Britain, the chartist movement became one of the oldest labour unions were legalized and the management of business organizations have no choice but to contain the raw dimension of the personnel problems arising from industrial revolution. Although the problems of personnel management started during the industrial Revolution, the actual personnel management practices started 1940. Today, personnel management has become very important in the achievement of the objectives of any business organization. It helps the business firm to maintain effective work force
Flippo (1980) defined personnel management as “the planning, organisation, directing and controlling of the procurement, development, compensation, integration, maintenance and separation of human resources to the end that individual organizational and social objective are accomplished”. Personnel management performs two functions namely, managerial and operative functions.
Recruitment as a function of personnel department is a continuing function. Among the functions of recruitment are organization for recruitment, sources of recruitment and evaluation of recruitment sources.
2.2.3 MEANING AND PROCESSES OF RECRUITMENT
Balogun (1980) defined recruitment or employment as the process by which personnel or manpower resources are made available through appointment as in the case of board members, or directors of government enterprise especially in public organization. In the Civil Service Commission, we use recruitment method in the employment of personnel or staff. Nwankwo(1988) perceived recruitment to induce getting all prospective applicants for job position in an organization. While Abah (1997) defined recruitment as the act of seeking, evaluating, obtaining commitment from placing and orienting new employees to fill positions required for the successful conduct of an organization. For him, the recruitment process involves seeking and attracting a pool of people from which candidates to fill job vacancies can be selected.
Fatiregun(1992) saw recruitment and selection of personnel as one and the same. For selection, he conceptualized it as an exercise of choosing par excellence through the process of rejecting or matching of applicants, first against the attitude, which will make for success on the job and second matching of the candidates, one against the other until one has rank-ordered all of them in order of relative suitability. Simply put, recruitment is the process of selecting and attracting of personnel or right candidates into job position of an organization. Thus recruitment and its process are not simply easy. A good recruitment if not planned and well operated, becomes poor recruitment process and could lead to the selection of poor applicant. Recruitment demands much attention and vary careful preparation, for once the staff is secured, its management becomes the next major problem. Meanwhile, the major problem facing effective administration\management of public organizations in recent times in our country is low match people with job.On this, Olayide (1990) observed that there is also the hazard of the over-increasing role of government as an entrepreneur with inadequate manpower resources, yet had always determined the quality and quantity of manpower need in public organizations. Expressing concern over the recruitment problem in our public enterprises, the ex- governor of River state expressed regrets at “the River state Civil Service is inundated with people who are not only unqualified but are completely redundant thus waste manpower resources on the state civil Senate”.
Furthermore, the role of the government in the appointment of Chief Executives without necessary regard to merit in political appointment of either corporations Chief executive or board members, also simply that such members may not have been chosen on grounds of integrity, knowledge or even experience in the business of the business of the corporation they run. Apart from the difficulty of increasing the individual integrity before appointment there is a lot to be said in form of striking a mean between professionalism and extreme amateurism.
In recruitment process, an enterprise or organization should first of all undertake what is called general organization of service i.e. the enterprise has to undertake a research of the services to be provided, the functions of the performed and then format some standardization or formalization of entry in respect of those services (Ofoegbu, 1985)
Recruitment as a function of personnel department is a continuing function. Among the functions of recruitment are organization for recruitment, sources of recruitment and evaluation of recruitment sources.
2.2.4 ORGANIZATION FOR RECRUITMENT
One of the test of efficient personnel department is its ability to fill job positions promptly and adequately. (Nwachukwu 1981) Thus organization for recruitment must be proper. In making a proper organization for recruitment there must be rules and procedure which must be followed closely. There must be policy statement, definition and assignment of authority and responsibility. Supporting the idea of policy statement. Mandel point out that a company with a carefully planned recruitment program is as good a sing of effective management as almost any other single idea. The reason for this broad statement is that poor management cannot produce a good recruitment programme. Hicks (1968) add to Mandels views by stating that individual and organizational activities without a plan are likely to be ineffective.
Recruitment or employment activities should be centralized if the policies of top management are to be implemented, consistently and efficiently in company wide living. It is only when personnel requisitions go through one central source and all employment records are kept up to date that there is a maximum possibility for efficiency and success in living.
The type of organizational set up determines the method of organization for its recruitment programmes. Every organization, no matter how big or small, uses some sort of system for accomplishing its resource planning and control function. Thus Yode (1963) expressed that “the organizational set up used in recruitment is largely a function of the size of the employing unit. Therefore, one finds that in smaller business units, the authority to recruit many be vested on an official line whereas in larger enterprise, organizational specialization is customary, and frequently a staff unit attached to the personnel department or industrial relations sees to recruitment.
In many companies today, one find a state of mutual frustration existing between top management and the personnel unit. It is well known that not many chief executive officer or line managers come from ranks of the personnel and accordingly are not particularly sensitive to personnel needs or knowledgeable about realistic personnel objectives. Consequent upon that, if the policy of central requirement is adequately explained by top management, line managers need not feel that in accepting the services of staff expert advice of personnel managers should be regard as a supplement to the judgment of line managers and not a substitute for it. This therefore means that the line manager retains the right to accept or reject an applicant sent to his department by the recruitment people .Line managers can of course , benefit by the assistance of the management effort, because the line managers is extremely busy and has neither process himself. In smaller enterprises however, the line manager and his supervisor re opt to be charged with the recruitment responsible in addition to their other duties.
Highlighting on the disadvantages of improper organization for recruitment, grant observes that there many organizations which appear unaware of formalized recruitment programme and who do nothing towards the formalization of a positive recruitment policy of such organization
In Nigeria today, perhaps the greatest challenges to management of industries is the scarcity of the inventive and innovative worker, the type of worker that should make it possible for technology to be evolved rather than transferred according to (Oduduma 1981). It is therefore clear that any country waiting to embark on technological take-off, must have and maintain the right caliber of man-power. Most people have erroneously believed that the acquisition of machinery and equipment from the industrialized nations is the solution to our technological problems. Mandell (1979) make some corrections on this erroneous belief by pointing out that despite advances in automatic data processing and electronic computer, the human office worker especially the men or women with some skill in great demand.
2.2.5 SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT
To find and employ the best individuals available is every personnel manager’s goal. When requisition for a new employee is made, the personnel manager, has the task of finding out the best recruitment sources to fill the vancancy. It is vital to note the success or failure of any employment, starts from the recruitment source used.
Recruitment activities begines when an approved personnel requisition is received by the individual responsible for recruiting. The recruitment sources can best be grouped into internal and external sources.
Internal sources of Recruitment are a situation where the company recruits its present employees to fill vacancies which could be inform of promotion from within. The organization obviously cannot live by feeding on itself alone. It is necessary to procure workers from outside, of course but except in unusual cases, it should be necessary to engage workers from outside for position than those in the rank and file.
The following sources serves as external sources of recruitment for an organization:
(i) Contact through present employees:
Many companies employ, with advantage, a plan through which the present employees are encouraged to introduce their friends. The assumption here is that the friends of employees will be the same kinds of people as the employees themselves. Consequently if the standard of the employee is high, it is altogether probable that those whom they attract to the company will be of equally high quality.
(ii) Contact through employment agencies:
Employment can also be sought through the public and private Employment agencies. The public agencies are those supported by taxation and maintained by federal or the state Governments. The Private agencies are supported by individuals for private gain. A lot of criticisms have been leveled upon the private agencies who are seen as being exploitative in practice. Onwuchekwa is in support of this criticism because they are of the view that private agencies, owing to certain practices bordering on exploitation, have not looked upon in a favourable light by many social scientists.
Private agencies tend to specializes in specific occupations and skills such as clerical, manual craft and technical. They change fees either to the employer or to the applicant.
Advertisement in newspapers, journals, televisions, radios etc attract quite a large number of the labour force required by an organization. Nwachukwu observed that recruitment through advertisements; undoubtedly attract employees of good quality. Nwachukwu is also of the view that large number of floaters, meligers and others who are unfit are attracted by the advertisement in the degree in which it is made sound attractive
(iv)Contact though labour unions:
Where the management of an organization recognizes labour unions, the chief labour supply may be made available through the business agent of the union. There is occasionally a definite agreement between management and union that all need must be supplied through the business agent. Onwuchekwa suggest that the union stock-trade becomes its ability to maintain a full complement of readily placed skilled workers.
(v) Contact with Schools, colleges and Universities:
Many companies visit schools, colleges and universities to solicit for their required manpower needs.
Onwuchekwa point out that this technique enables the company to paint an attractive picture of its employment opportunities and to do advanced screening of candidates.
(Vi) Former Employees:
A company can also resort to looking for its former employees when soliciting for manpower. These formal employees may have been laid off by the company or may have resigned for one reason or other. Onwuchekwa, is of the view that it is costly oversight for a company to lose contact with the those employees who for good reasons personal or otherwise, have been obliged to resign
(vi) Unsolicited Applicants:
This happens for jobs requiring only routine ability and skills. Many employee are able to fill their labour needs largely by means of direct hiring at the gate. Onwuchekwa emphasizes that recruitment of the right type of staff is a vital concerned of every type of business. Recruitment he continues, it plagued with all kinds of irregularities at this stage, Nepotism, and sectionalism which give rise to inappropriate screening of candidates for jobs. Caleman (1967) reports that in a survey of some big firm I Sam Francise Bay area labour market. It was found that for manual worker, direct hiring at the gate was the second most commonly used source of workers.
However, one of the most influential factors affecting the desirability of this method as a source is the image and the reputation of the organization in the community. If a company by its actions, has demonstrated that it treats its employees well, pays adequate was and adequate personnel practices, those seeking work will gravitate to the enterprise.
TYPES OF RECRUITMENT
There are basically two types of recruitment. They include:
(i) Centralized Recruitment:
This is a system whereby one office handles the task of recruitment, example the civil service commission that considers requests for positions, advertises them, short-lists candidates for interview and then comes up with the recommendations of the best candidates, to fill the vacant positions to the various departments or ministries; which in turn issues them with appointment letter and thereafter places them in their specific functions and tasks.
(ii) Decentralized Recruitment:
Here, we have a direct opposite of the centralize type; where recruitment of staff or personnel goes on in every ministry like in Nigeria, following the Civil Service. Decree No 43 of 1988. In this system, the Civil service commission only to attends to ministries recruitment exercises as a moderate, to ensure general maintain of uniform standard and general guidelines on qualifications of candidates, experience and age etc while the actual task of recruitment is carried out in the various departments\ ministries
FACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENT IN NIGERIAN PUBLIC SERVICES
(i)Recruitment policies and practices:
The caliber of people recruited into an organization no doubt, determines to a large extent their contribution to the organization and the success or failure of the organization. Wrong recruitment and selection practices such as ethnic, religions, political and other considerations have created a situation where we have” garbage in and garbage out”., or putting square pages in round holes. The Nigerian public service is not an exception. What we have in virtually every segment of the public service in Nigeria is a situation where the chairman of board or commission, commissioner of a ministry complied the names of his relations, friends, political and party members and offered them employment without recourse to standards, rules and regulation. The permanent secretary to the ministry secretary to the commission etc are usually sidelined and rendered redundant, only to be victimized, if he\she complains. This culminates in low productivity.
One of the banes of the Nigerian service is the recruitment of mediocre or totally unsuitable candidates in preference to candidates of high merit. The reason for this ugly situation can be traced directly to favouritism by those in high positions such as the chairman, commissioners and so on, to their relatives.
Mostly prevalent in the recruitment of very junior employees like messangers and clerks. In this category of recruitment, the recruiting agents or officials who are usually management officials see the exercise as an opportunity to make money and thereby resorting to collecting bribes from the applicants, hence “no bribe no employment”.
(iii) Paper Qualification( undue emphasis on )
One fact, which is seldom realized today is that more paper qualification is not a true test of the merit which rhe qualification proclaimed in the certificate is suppose to carry. It is not usually today to find two young graduates holding the same degree qualification but while one can write down his thoughts and ideas in logical sequence and in correct grammar, the other can hardly write one sentence correctly without elementary errors of spelling, grammar and in totally unintelligible prose.
Yet they both hold the same degree qualification. This is why it is frightfully important that the process of recruitment or appointment should be an instrument for the promotion of efficiency in the public service.
(v)Federal character principle\Quota system:
It is a common knowledge that due to cultural diversity and sentiment, every group and tribe, want to occupy public service position, whether qualified or not.
(vii) Mutual conspiracy:
In the civil and public services, various commissions undertake the recruitment of various categories of staff- accounts, technical officers etc or other bodies in the case of other systems within the public service. While every member of the commission or board helps on merit system, yet some among the members make conscious effort to ensure that their own candidates are appointed. These candidates may be blood relations or relations of family friends or persons from the same town or clan. Interviews are followed by discreet disclosure of interest, which soon become a mutual affair among the members, trading of candidates then ensure, whereby the results are outcome rub my back and I rub your own.
(viii) Improper recruitment;
This factor occurs in ministries or in organizations, where certain persons are recruited or employed in organizations without recourse to the laid down ruled of recruitment. These persons when eventually employed re neither found not to be qualified nor their credential relevant to the position they are seeking for. This makes for low productivity in the organization. There is no discipline in such situation where the new employee only pays loyalty to his or her God-father in the corridors of power. Those who are better qualified but are placed for below the new employee is discouraged and will no longer give their best in achieving maximum productivity.
This factor affects recruitment in Nigerian public enterprises especially in our present days. Many states in the federation have adopted the policy of non-indigene ship. For instance, if there is vacant positions in Ebonyi water corporation, the
Board of director in the management of this public enterprise may not like to employ or recruit any person I.e. not from Ebonyi state, even when such persons are more qualified than Ebonyian, the position will not be given to non-indigenes because they are not from the state (Ebonyi) the board of director may like to recruit only people from their state (Ebonyi) to man such positions even when those people are mediocre. As a result of that, this factor account for inefficiency in our present public enterprises today
(x) Gender Discrimination;
Gender discrimination in recruitment here in Nigeria is still prevalent. Females with the same qualification with their male counterparts are still being discriminated upon. Women are not given equal opportunities with men even when they have been found better managers than the men. There is still that mentality that women are the weaker sex and therefore cannot perform efficiently. A woman like Dr. (Mrs.) Dora Akunyili of NAFDAC has proved beyond reasonable doubt that she can deliver.
In the state level one sees a situation where it is only those from the same locality that occupy a place. People from different locality are not welcomed. Even though those from other localities are more qualified to occupy such position they are
relegated to the background. All these happen because the personnel management is not allowed to exercise its power to recruit the right caliber of people to occupy the right positions.
Infact, the Nigerian public service has been exposed to certain influences, which have in turn affected its effectiveness.
BACKGROUND TO PERFORMACE MANAGEMENT
The concept of performance management has been one of the most important and positive development in the sphere of human resource management in recent years. The phase was first coined by Beer and Ruh in 1976 but it did not become recognized as a distinctive approach until the mid- 1980’s growing out of the realization that a more continuous and integrated approach was needed to manage and reward performance. All too often, crudely developed and lustily implemented performance related pay and appraisal systems were not delivering the results that somewhat naively. People were expecting from them.
Performance management has risen like a phoenix from the old established but some what discredited systems of merit rating and management by objectives. Many of the more recent developments in performance appraised have also been absorbed into the concept of performance management, which aims to be a much wider, more comprehensive and more natural process of management. Performance appraised has too often operated as a top-down and largely discredited bureaucratic system owned by the personnel department return than by line managers
THE MEANING OF PERFORMANCE
Performance management is, of course, about performance. But what is meant by those words? It is important to clarify what it means because if performance cannot be defined you can not measure or manage it. It has been pointed out by Bates and Holton (1995) that: Performance is a multi-dimensional construct. The measurement of which varies depending on a variety of factors: They also state that it is important to determine whether the measurement objective is to assess performance outcomes or behaviour.
There are different views on what performance is. It can be regarded as simply the record of outcomes achieved. On an individual basis, it is a record of the person’s accomplishments Kane (1996) argues that performance is something that the person leaves behind and that exists apart from the purpose. Barnadin etal (1995) are concerned that performance should be defined as the outcomes of work because they provide the strongest linkage to the strategic goals of the organization, customers satisfaction, and economic contributions. The oxford English Dictionary defines performance as: The accomplishment, execution, carrying out, working out of anything ordered or undertaken.
This refers to outputs outcomes (accomplishment) but also states that performance is about doing the work as well as being about the results achieved. Performance could therefore be regarded as behaviour the way in which organizations, terms and individuals get work done. Campbell (199) believes that: Performance is behaviour and should be distinguished from the outcomes because they can be contaminated by systems factors. According to Brumbach (1988): Performance means both behaviour and results. Behaviour emanates from the performer and transforms performance from abstraction to action. Not just the instruments for results, behaviors are also outcomes in their own right- the product of mental and physical effort applied to tasks and can be judged apart from results.
The definition of performance leads to the conclusion that when managing the performance of teams and individuals both inputs (behaviour) and outputs (results) need to be considered. This is the so-called. Miked model (Harle, 1995) of performance management which covers competency levels and achievements as well as objective setting and review.
JOB PERFORMANCE DEFINED:
Job performance can be defined as a strategic and integrated approach to delivering sustained success to organizations by improving the performance of the people who work in them and by developing the capabilities of teams and individual contributors (Armstrong and Baron, 1998).
PURPOSE OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT
Performance management is a means of getting better results from the organization, teams and individuals by understanding and managing performance within an agreed framework at planned goals standards and competence requirements. It is a process for establishing and developing, and an approach to managing and developing people in a way that increases the probability that it will be achieved in the short and longer term. It is owned and driven by line management.
PRINCIPLES OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT
The principles of performance management have been well summarized by IRS (1996) as follow:
(i) It translates corporate goals into individual, team department and divisional goals.
(ii) It helps to clarity corporate goals
(iii) It is a continuous and evolutionary process, in which performance improves over time.
(iv) It relies on consensus and cooperation rather than control on coercion.
(v) It encourages self management of individual performance.
(vi) It requires a management style that is open and honest and encourages two-way communication between superiors and subordinates.
(vii) It requires continuous feedback
(viii) Feedback loops enable the experiences and knowledge gained on the Job by individuals to modify corporate objectives.
(ix) It measures and assesses all performance against jointly agreed goals.
(x) It should apply to all staff; and it is not primarily concerned with linking performance to financial reward.
THE PROCESS OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT
Performance management is a continuous and flexible process that involves managers and those whom they manage acting as partiers within a framework that sets out how they can best work together to achieve the required results. It focuses on future performance planning and improvement rather than on retrospective performance appraisal. It provides the basis for regular and frequent dialogues between managers and individuals or terms about performance and development needs. Performance management is mainly concerned but it can also be applied to teams.
Performance management review provide the inputs required to create personal or team development plans, and to many people performance management is essentially a developmental process and they prefer to talk about performance and development reviews rather than performance management. Performance reviews can however, produce data in the form of individual ratings, which may be used as the bias for performance related pay decisions. There are, however, strong arguments against linking performance management with performance-related pay.
Performance management is a process for measuring compared with expectation expressed as objectives. In this respect, it focuses on targets, standards and performance measure or indicators. But it is also concerned with inputs the knowledge, skills and competencies required to produce the expected results. It is by defining those input requirements and assessing the extent to which the expected levels of performance have been achieved by using skills and competencies effectively that developmental needs are identified.
GAP IN KNOWLEDGE
From the literature review, we have understood that when recruited right caliber of people or quality staff to man position in an organisation leads to Job performance. This is, quality recruitment leads to Job performance and poor recruitment leads to poor performance. The researcher agreed with the assertions but discovered that there are some factors that can lead to how performance ever when quality staff has been recruited. Such factors are as follows:
(iii) Delay in payment of salaries of staff.
(iv) Lack of motivation to staff
(v) Poor working environment
(vi) Lack of good morale to staff.
The above factors can hinder the progress of the organisation even when quality staff has been recruited.
The researcher is of the view that lack of co-operation between line mangers and the personnel manager causes recruitment problem. Co0operation between managers and departments is very vital to the achievement of the organizational goals. The personnel manger has to work in co-operation with other managers before he can carry out effectively the functions of recruitment. Therefore, other managers have to show some interest in making sure that the right caliber of staff they need is recruited by the personnel manager.
RESEARCH FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:
The study was aimed at recruitment and job performance (A case study of Ebonyi State Water Corporation). The findings enumerated below were based on Oral interview and facts gathered from the questionnaires.
(1) The study revealed that majority of the respondents in the organizations was O’ level certificate holders. A few of the respondents were degree holders.
(2) It was found that Ebonyi State Water Corporation lacks skilled workers. This adversely effects their productivity.
(3) The study also revealed that Ebonyi State Water Corporation encounters problems in recruitment of their staff such as political influence, ethnicity and corruption. Which adversely affects the job performance of their workers.
(4) It was also found that the organization solicit for recruitment through external source such as advertising.
(5) It was also discovered that the corporation has policy in recruiting their workers. But did not follow the rulers and procedures strictly.
(6) The corporation also adopted a method of recruitment in their organization.
(7) It was also discovered that the most effective method adopted as a process of recruiting their workers is through external source.
(8) It was revealed by the majority of the respondents that the allocation given to recruitment does not take care of recruitment effectively.
(9) It was also discovered that there is no impact of recruitment policy of the job performance of the workers in EBWC.
(10) The majority of the respondents revealed that there was evaluation process of recruited staff of EBWC.
Based on the above findings, the following conclusions were drawn.
(1) Majority of the employees in EBWC were O’ level holder.
(2) Ebonyi State Water Corporation (EBWC) lacks qualified workers.
(3) Ebonyi State Water Corporation Encounter recruitment problem
(4) The nature of problem encounters wee political influence ethnicity and corruption in recruitment of their staff.
(5) There was lack of laid down rules and procedures in recruitment of staff in EBWC.
(6) Basically, the allocation of fund given to recruitment does not take care of recruitment cost.
(7) There was no impact of recruitment policy on the performance of the workers in EBWC.
Based on the findings made and conclusions drawn, the following recommendations were made:
(a) Recruitment should be a function of the personnel department with corporation of other managers in the organization.
(b) Recruitment should follow the normal processes of planning and in that care recruitment should be anticipated and future changes taken into consideration. This makes for efficiency and elimination of uncertainties.
(c) Recruitment is a serious business and is costly both in human terms and in terms of time and money. The cost must be accounted and also budgets for. High cost of recruitment can go a long way to hinder future recruitment therefore recognition of cost of recruitment in an organizational budget is very important. This will help in controlling expenses made on recruitment.
(d) Inadequate allocation of funds by the government to recruitment will surely not take care of recruitment efficiently. One of the tests of good personnel department is its ability to fill job positions promptly. With poor allocation of funds to recruitment obviously this function will not be carried out effectively. Therefore government should provide adequate funds for recruitment programme. This will help personnel department to recruitment right caliber of people into the organization (EBWC), for the process of the corporation.
(e) Workers should be assessed, evaluate and appraise base on their job, personnel administrators should motivate, encourage workers to put in more effort to achieve the objectives of the organisation.
(f) There should be also evaluation on Job of workers and find out if there is any performance of workers on their job; which may increase the productivity of the organization.
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Tick where appropriate.
(1) What is your present qualification?
(a) WASC/ND certificate
(b) HND/ First Degree
(c) M. Sc/ MBA/PHD
(2) What is your present rank?
(a) Top Manager
(b) Senior Staff
(c) Junior staff
(3) What Category of workers does EBWC employ in a greater number?
(a) Skill Workers
(b) Semi-Skill Workers
(c) Unskill workers
(4) How does EBWC solicit for the above category of Skill?
(a) Through internal source
(b) Through external source
(c) Through favouritism and Nepotism
(5) What is most effective source of recruitment in EBWC?
(a) External source
(b) Internal source
(6) Does EBWC encounter problems in the recruitment of its required workers, what is the nature of the problem?
(a) Political influence?
(7) How effective has the allocation given to recruitment in EBWC taken care of recruitment cost?
(a) Very effective
(b) Very poor
(8) Is there any recruitment policy process and Job performance process in EBWC?
(9) Does EBWC follow any laid down policy and procedure in recruiting workers?
(10) Does EBWC adopt any method of recruitment which may increase its productivity?
Tick and answer appropriately in the space provided.
(11) Is there any impact of recruitment policy on the job performance in EBWC staff?
(12) Is there any recruitment patterns and Job performance in EBWC?
(13) Is there any evaluation process of the recruited staff of EBWC?
(14) Does EBWC take into consideration, the cost of recruitment in its budget plane?
(15) Is there any Job performance base on workers recruited in EBWC?
(16) How has the guidelines adopted help your organization in previous recruitment?
(a) By eliminating personal bias
(b) By putting the right man on the job
(c) By helping the top management bring in their friends and relations
(17) Do other managers have a say in who should be recruited into their department?
(18) Has there been any clash of interest between managers in the area of recruitment?
(19) Do you consider high cost of recruitment a hindrance to effective recruitment in your organization?
(20) Does you Organisation anticipate future recruitment before embarking on recruitment exercise?
Job Performance – Effect Of Recruitment Pattern In Nigeria Public Corporations