6-3-3-4 System Of Education For Junior Secondary Schools – Implication

6-3-3-4 System Of Education For Junior Secondary Schools – Implication

6-3-3-4 System Of Education For Junior Secondary Schools – Implication

The educational system introduced by the missionary in Nigeria brought a new life of educational development into the country. The curriculum was intensely denominational shallow in content and religiously based.This is led to the (1882) education ordinance which under went series of criticisms and later revised by the 1887 ordinance.

The educational system that developed later was such that a child spent eight years in the primary school, and three years in the university, (Onabamiwo 1982). Real learning for understanding and application to the needs of our environment was absent.

With the 1969 curriculum conference the new national policy on education was born. The system which is known as the 6-3-3-4 system is envisaged by the former educational system.

Education is indeed for effective life in a technological society, a wheel base for any developing country clearly, the 6-3-3-4 education system is the greatest mile stone in the history of organized education in Nigeria. It is greatly faced with the problems and prospects, and should be clearly understood and appreciated and there should be adequate planning and implementation.

John Dewey (1930) on the same had stressed a marriage between theoretical and practical knowledge. There should be an inter-locking existence between theory and practice, hence the introduction and implementation of the 6-3-3-4 educational system which caters for the subjects (pre-vocational subject and non-vocational subjects). Education is constantly changing and adapting itself to new demands and new circumstances it therefore has the growing quality of a living organism.

However, any explanation of the rational for the new secondary school system might necessarily touch on the origin and concept of junior and senior secondary school system contrary to the belief of many Nigerians who thought that the junior and senior secondary school concept was a product of Britain our traditional colonial master from whom we borrowed most of our educational practice this system of secondary education is known to have originated from North America which has been practicing this generally given the credit for having started this system in North America in the year 1895. Nwaogwugwu, (1982) it is copied in agreement with the Nigeria culture. The origin of the system apart from the important question relates to whether the desired objectives are being especially at the junior secondary school JSS level. Recently the new national policy on education now known, as the 9-3-4system of education has been under implementation for this year now.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The national policy on education, commonly know, as the 6-3-3-4 system of education has been under implementation for many years now.

However, these are profound and varied implication of the 6-3-3-4 educational scheme for the junior secondary school in Abakaliki urban.

These problems range from the lack of teacher, few existing teacher not adequate, guidance and counseling service, lack of audio visual aids, lack of finance, inadequate instructional materials and equipments. These have put the vocational skills acquisition into a bad condition.

Furthermore the problem created by this ugly phenomenon has attracted young vocational education like myself to conduct this research study to identify / find out what are those problems militating against 6-3-3-4 system of education of junior secondary school and its implication with special reference to student in Abakaliki urban in Ebonyi State.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to identify the problem and implication of the 6-3-3-4 System of Education for junior secondary school in Abakaliki urban of Ebonyi State and specifically the study tends;

1. To examine the vocational relevance of the junior secondary school curriculum relative to the objective of 6-3-3-4 scheme.

2. To determine the implementation and problems at the junior secondary school level.

3. To explore ways of addressing the problems.

1.4 Significance of the Study

The study would be of utmost significance to the general reader students and parent, principals and teachers including the guidance and counselors. This is for the following reasons.

It would be significant to the general readers as greater insight would be geared into the 6-3-3-4 education system.

It would be significant to the student as it will help to solve the drop out problem in the secondary school by providing education suitable to students with varying aptitudes, interest and abilities.

And also provide broad based education to students at the junior secondary school level. And student on graduation from secondary school can find self secondary school can find self employment without waiting for government to provide employment and parents will no longer suffer for the training of their children without being employed.

For the principals and teachers, an awareness would be created as to how to handle most of the things involved in the system which include roles there in. to the counselors is that they can realize that they have a greater role to play in the success of the entire system.

1.5 Scope of the Study

The researcher limits the tropical coverage of the study to the implication of 6-3-3-4 system of education for Junior Secondary schools in Abakaliki Urban. An implication for junior secondary education within the Izzi Secondary schools in Abakaliki.

1.6 Research Question

The following research question were formulated to guide the study.

1. How adequate and qualified are junior secondary school technical teachers relative to be acquisition of fictional and vocational skills by JSS graduates?

2. How effective continuous assessment administered in schools?

3. How functional are guidance and counseling service in schools?

4. What are the problems facing the implementation of 6-3-3-4 system of educational at the junior level?



This chapter reviews literature relevant to the study. The review will be done, under the following sub-headings:

1. To examine the vocational relevance of the junior secondary school curriculum relative to the objective of 6-3-3-4 scheme.

2. To determine the implementation and problems at the junior secondary school levels.

3. To explore ways of addressing the problems.

4. Summary of the literature review

To Examine the Vocational Relevance of the Junior Secondary School Curriculum Relative to the Objective of 6-3-3-4 Scheme: The 6-3-3-4 system of formal educational system has come a long way, starting from the colonial era when one would aptly say that it was floating like a snail boat to 1979 when the floating seemed to have channeled direction in the national policy on education, other wise called the 6-3-3-4 system of education.

According to Ani (1996), this educational system is to provide a broad based education to students at the junior secondary school level, providing training is basic technical and vocational skills, needed for the job market and encourage children to identify their areas of interest and capability in possible occupations early, also to be able to opt for the required training at appropriate institutions before entering any occupation of one choice.

Similarly, it is expected to create a situation where people should bee self –reliant, create self and national efficiency, effective citizenship and national consciousness Ani (1996).

It will also help the government to provide secondary education to a greater number of students than would have been possible under the traditional five year secondary education system because when fully operational, the junior secondary school system will be through neighborhood schools. The idea is that schools will be built within easy reach of students to attend as day students (Mgbodile 1986). According to the National Policy, “with the dramatic explosion of the demand for secondary education the possibility of making junior secondary schools neighborhood day schools should be given high priority (NPE 1981).

The incidence of social evils resulting from unemployment will be reduced and countries over reliance and emphasis on certificates will be drastically reduced. This will naturally help to solve the problem of examination malpractices and Craze for certificates.

It is also envisaged that the educational system will help solve the drop out problem in the secondary school by providing education suitable to student with the effective study of general education which provide a firm foundation for the needed growth and development in science and technology. Also education will become functional as many of the skills acquired in the different subjects will be put into practical use not only in providing employment but also in facilitating like in general (Mgbodile 1986).

However there are profound and varied implications of the 6-3-3-4 educational scheme junior. In Abakaliki urban of Ebonyi state and these range from the lack of teacher, few existing teacher not adequate, guidance and counseling service, lack of audio visual aids, lack of finance, inadequate instructional material and equipments and other inadequate, which will be highlighted in this paper including the objectives of the secondary education, at the junior level.

The examination of the outstanding features of the organisation of the junior secondary school will help us better understand this system and its importance to our educational aspirations. The following are some of the outstanding features of the junior secondary school system.

Enlarged Curricular Offerings/Programmes

The junior secondary school system according to Okoro (1992) has a more enlarged and broad based programme that the traditional five year secondary school system. The programme is broad-based in the sense that it includes core subjects who are destined for broad general education and pre-vocational subjects who offer knowledge and skill in technical and vocational subjects.


Provision of Introductory Technology

The provision of introductory technology is a prominent characteristic or feature of the junior secondary school and an important phase of general education. Ani (1996), said that the purpose is to familiarize the student with tools, materials processely potential occupations and areas of vocation for later leisure. It is in this programme that students are given training in technical and vocational skill development.

Guidance and counseling: Guidance and counseling service is provide to students in the junior secondary school, the purpose of counseling services is to furnish students with information and assistance so that they may be better equipped and able to handle the problems peculiar to the early adolescents in the junior secondary school. It is also to enable them make a wise choice of further education as well as make a realistic choice Denga (1982).

Student Record

Records are kept of each student in the junior secondary school according to Nwangwu (1989) “Each student has a file created for him which contains achievement records for each year as well as other helpful documents about the individual student, such as photographs and information in writing”.

This forms the official record of each student’s school career parents and guidance as well as students can have access to the record on request and approval by the principal periodic review of student’s behaviour and performance. The student’s record contains documents used for continuous assessment of his performances throughout his courses of his performances throughout his courses and stay at the junior secondary school.

Enlarged Time-Table

Consequent upon the enlarged school programme, the time table of the junior secondary school in enlarged. This enlargement is natural and understandable as it is meant to accommodate the new additional subjects.

Onabamiwo (1982) has this to say about the 6-3-3-4 education policy.

The first six years will be for general basic education followed by three years of general education followed by three years of general education, with pre-vocational subjects, so that the students who wish to leave the system at this stage will be employable. The next three years will be for general education leading to some marketable skills apart from training in the sciences and humanities so that the student graduating at this stage will be employable. Every student will be made to learn a skill. The next four years will be for university and professional courses of varying durations.

Mgbodile (1986) went further to comment on the 6-3-3-4 system of education thus “ the two-tiler system of education has been adopted for a number of reason” it is expected to provide an answer to some of the ills of our educational system that have been the subject of several criticisms and citizens over the years. Principal among these ills is the non-functionality of our educational system. Our educational system in general has been criticized for not being functional. This means that it does not meet the needs and problems of present day Nigeria. The secondary school education is said to be literary and grammar – oriented, and geared towards the production of white collar job sellers or situation which has turned out many unemployable school graduates.

All these definitions and explorations of the 6-3-3-4 educational system are without loopholes. For instance nothing was said about the six years of primary education. Though enough explanations was given on the junior and senior secondary school in terms of the subjects to be studied, but nothing was said of the primary school including the four years of university education and colleges of education programmes including the colleges of technology and polytechnics.

In the same vain, but different view, Fafunwa (1985) observed that “the new national policy on education is significantly different from the old system in four major areas. Every child will receive six years (not 4 or 5 of primary education. The three years junior secondary school will offer a diversified curriculum-academic and pre-agriculture, hone economic, technical drawing, auto mechanics etc. continuous assessment will replace examination and cramming. Guidance services will feature prominently and this will enable students to choose career that fit their aptitude and interest”. It must be noted that the old system of Nigerian education was criticized for being examination oriented and for training students who memorized and regurgitate facts instead of producing those able to engage in critical and reflective thinking. This situation has made Nigeria examination conscious and has created a certificate craze or cult in the country. Many Nigerians regards the acquisition of a certificate as an end product of itself. This has brought in its water the problems of “expo” on examination mal practices as well as certificate racketing. Again, the system of one short summative evaluation system has been criticized as inadequate. But by far, one of the greatest criticisms is the fact that the system does not encourage manipulative and vocational skills. As the emphasis was on literary education, Nigeria youths and the general public tended to look down on technical and vocational subjects, on manual labour and agriculture a situation that could be said to have been responsible for the liberary vocational dichotomy in Nigeria education. Mgbodile (1986).also writing on the 6-3-3-4 educational system obinna (1982) emphasized that the success in the execution of this policy depends very much on accurate continuous assessment and counseling of every child in addition to the result of end of year examination.

To determine the implementation and problems at the junior secondary school level.

And Onyeachoram (1982) has this to say on how and where the problem lies in the implementation of the national policy on education, “The counting faces an acute shortage of vocational teachers. Non are their enough technical schools and workshops for the teaching of woodwork and metal works, brick-laying and mason, art and handicrafts, carpentry, sewing or tailoring to mention just a few. Further more, science laboratories and equipment to facilitate the teaching and the study of science in the schools are equally scarce. Here onyeacholam is saying that the problems of the 6-3-3-4 system include, inadequate technical schools, workshops, laboratories and equipment including staff and obinna presents the problems to include, “finance, workshops, staff, manpower and building. Also contributing to the topic on the execution of the national policy on education, Adam (1982) had to add, that “among the problems are funds, equipment and infrastructure”. Here he is laying emphasis on the fact that funds would be needed for equipment and infrastructure.

Nwakoby (1987), in her end of course report identified the following as difficult problems in the implementation of the new national policy on education.

Poor rational and lack of cohesion

i. In specification of goals and objectives in all dimension of the innovation into resultant doubt and conflicts in inter partition change.

ii. Unsatisfactory implementation characterized by lack of communication policy and poor communication management.

Poor communication management:

Lack of an efficient and reliable evaluation mechanism, to provide vital feed-back to permit decisions and actions to be reviewed, confirmed or redirected”. Having discussed the problem of the 6-3-3-4 educational system, the researcher at this juncture intends to view the prospects also.

The final success of the 6-3-3-4 educational policy programme will make the youths functionally literate and integrated into the society. Indeed this will be in line with the national philosophy of education which is based on individuals” self realization” better human relationship, individual and national efficiency, effective citizenship, national consciousness, national unity as well as toward social, cultural, economics, political, scientific and technological progress.

Still on the national policy of education. Onuga (1982) explains that “the 6-3-3-4 system, which took off in September will eventually help achieve it is reawakening individual development as well as manpower fulfillment. Hence, every skill in all fields should be developed and encouraged to the maximum in order to help realize that there is valve and dignity in labour.

Generally, the 6-3-3-4 education system as it is meant to be implemented, has a very promising content and has basically some features, that can help give Nigeria a brighter future – economically, educationally and technologically”.

Writing on the intended gains of the new educational system, Denga (1982) has it is to say:” Educational provision will be made more egalitarian in that equal opportunities (at least in principle) will be created for all citizens, regardless of ethnic background, equality of educational provision pre-supposes that more people will be educated and will live more effective and better live”! Here, Danga is specifically concerned with differences that do exist between the Northern Nigeria and Eastern Nigeria education which he said would be abolished, hence the implementation of the 6-3-3-4 educational system would enhance better understanding, and education should be for all, and equal educational opportunities despite the individuals ethnic affiliation and in still into the young star the meaning of, and the sense for justice, fair play, and egalitarianism, as well as their implication and ramification.

To explore ways of addressing the problems.

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The government intends to achieve much through the educational system. This is of course in live with the included gains of the educational system. This is of course in line with the included gains of the educational system specified by Denga (1983).

According to Aminu (1986) “The philosophy guiding the educational policy must be targeted at achieving self-realization, better human relationship, individual and national efficiency, effective citizenship, national consciousness, national unity, as well as towards social cultural, economics political scientific and technological progress”. “Section 1.p 5

(5) of the national policy on education provides for “the acquisition of appropriate skills, abilities and competences, both mental and physical as equipment for the individual to live in and contribute to the development of this society”. The skills are to be acquired in the secondary school and the individual is to be equipped for useful living with the society. The system was also introduced to eradicate unemployment and over dependence on white collar jobs and contribution to the merits of the educational system will de-emphasis the emphasis placed on paper qualification. There will be nothing like dropouts again and the much needed manpower at both higher and middle levels, for the speedy development of the country, will be achieved. Most importantly, it will bridge the gap between the turning out of graduates and unemployment”.

Invariably, what the two learned gentlemen are deriving at is that the system will help people to discover their areas of specializations and gain job easily. Also writing on the same issue Nwokenna 1982 put across the following observation about the curriculum of the 6-3-3-4 educational system. The products of this system are meant to be no intellectual robots rather they will be mixture academicians and professionals, with basic potentials ready for immediate employment on further development and specialization on furthering their education.

Here Nwokenna is establishing the fact that the 6-3-3-4 educational system and its curriculum is meant to produce men and women of not only intellectual abilities, but men and women of sound moral character including vocational and professional competences. For Mosin (1984) “The education system calls for the dedication to duties and conformity too social discipline”.

The system will equally enhance the present war against indiscipline (WAI) since every individual will be committed to his/her vocation and education. It will also go a long way in ameliorating the moral laxity prevalent in our society, hence the introduction of moral and religious education in the formal system. The individual will than be intellectually, morally, spiritually, emotionally and of course skillfully trained.


The national policy on education commonly know as the 6-3-3-4 system of education has been operational in the country for same time now. The secondary education competent of the scheme comprises two levels- junior and senior secondary education, each with three years duration.

An important objective at the junior level is that graduates can either proceed to the senior levels or move into paid on self employment, moving into employment means that graduates of that level should have acquired a reasonable level of functional, vocational and productive skills.

From the review of literature it appears that this objective is far from being met because of several implementation problems and constraints. Amongst these are scarcity of teachers and other personnel, in some key areas as science, technology and guidance and counseling, the situation is similar with facilities, total and equipment which are very vital for the teaching and learning of relevant skills.

Despite the short-comings, the 6-3-3-4 scheme is potentially useful. Thus, the problem is more of that of policy implementation than of policy formulation. The situation calls for the need for adequate structures to be put in place before starting any major policy reform. It is against this background that this study was embarked upon.

Summary of findings

The finding of the study can be summarized as follows:

1. Although the available technical teachers in secondary schools are sufficiently qualified the number of such teacher is grossly inadequate to provide meaningful skills to JSS students.

2. There is general agreement amongst secondary school teachers that continuous assessment is an important aspect of junior secondary education.

3. Most teachers fed that not only do teachers not have sufficient skills for conducting continuous assessment but also that the exercise is generally not reliable and effective.

4. There is also general agreement amongst secondary school teachers that guidancy and counseling services are an important aspect of JSS.

5. Guidance and counseling staff in schools were not only found to be generally incompetent, but the counseling exercise was also said to be ineffective.

6. Although many schools have functional introductory technology workshops, the tools and equipment in them were inadequate, while the workshops themselves were under-utilized.

7. There was a general consensus that graduates of junior secondary schools do not possess sufficient functional vocational skill to enter.



In this chapter the major finding of the study will be discussed. Also the educational implications of the finding will be highlighted the chapter will be show with recommendations conclusion and suggestions for further study.


Discussion of Findings

The finding will be discussed according to the research question:

Research Question 1: This research question deal with the adequacy of the number and qualification of technical teachers in secondary school table 1 show that the percentage of technical teachers in the same schools ranges from 1.70 to 4.90. This is obviously to 100. For example, the number of subjects offered in the sample schools rage from 10 to 14. This means that if teachers were to be proportionally assigned to subjects, each subject should have between 40% (for 10 subjects) and 7.22 (for 14 subjects) of the teachers. The figures of 1.70% to 4.90% obtained in table 1 are for less than these figures indicating that the number of technical teachers in the school are too 100. This is further buckets, the table 2 where the pupil-teacher ratio is for higher than usual 30.1.

Table 3 shows that there was general agreement in the schools that the technical teacher are, professionally qualified. This is as might be expected since the study was concerned with the availability of teachers with technical qualifications rather than those who actually teach technical subjects. In this connection most of the schools used teachers without technical education background to teach technical subjects, technology. When ask why, most of those interviewed simple said that the subject had to be taught with or without technical teachers. In general therefore, and in relation’s research question one, the problem is more about the number of technical teachers, and less about qualification.

Research Question 2: This research question was concerned with the importance and effectiveness of the continues assessment exercise, while all the respondents agreed, that continues assessment was an important aspect of secondary education, most of them said that not only do teachers not have sufficient skills to carry out the exercise, but also that the exercise was generally not reliable or effective. When interviewed some of the teachers said that teacher sometime simply assigned arbitrary mans to students. They laid some of the blames on teachers not having sufficient skills to conduct the exercise. The implication of this is that workshops and in-service programmes should be organized for teachers, if the objectives of introducing continuous assessment are to be met.

Research Questions: Research questions considered the important and effectiveness of guidance and counseling was an important aspect of JSS they also reported that schools neither had competent guidance counseling, nor was the exercise effective in schools. During interview respondents said that they encountered to problems in connection with guidance and counseling. One was that non-professional guidance counselors were usually assigned the job in school mainly because of the absence of professionals. Secondary, students enrolment in school are very high, making it almost impossible for any effective guidance and counseling external (government) and internal (school) efforts to effective address the situation.

Research Question 4: This research question looked at the availability and use of workshops and equipment while table 10 shows that half of the schools samples has functional workshops.

Table II shows that materials tools and equipment in the entire school workshop were inadequate given that the study was conducted in an urban area, it can be argued that the situation will be worse in rural areas. It is also significant that it was exactly the same five schools that said that; they fully utilized their workshops (see table 10 and 12). It is pertinent to point out here that while resources may be scare, schools should endeavor to make full and judicious use of available ones.

Finally, table 13 seems to be the major answer to the problem of the study the table shows that all the schools agreed that graduates of junior secondary education do not have sufficient functional and vocational skills to enter productive employment. The implication of this is obvious, that a major objective of the junior |secondary Education is not being met. These calls for the co-operation and support of all concerned to reverse the situation.

Implication of the Findings

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As assessment, from the school education point of view, is the measurement of how much of the objective of the curriculum has been achieved in the cognitive, effective ad psychomotor domains. Assessment can be compared to a bridge between the teacher and the learner.

Also a special type of assessment in which a variety of instrument are used to determine with a greater confidence what the students have general in the cognitive effective and psychomotor domain for the purpose of guidance.

This continuous assessment is one of the major distinguishing functions of 6-3-3-4 system of education in Nigeria. It must systematic, comprehensive, cumulative and guidance oriented. With this type of assessment, the weekly tests, projects and assignments will be hard for pupils to fail woefully during the final examination. It helps to keep teachers busy and tends to fit in the students talents into the various spheres required of them.

By the new policy, the “one shot” examination and the first school leaving examination will be ultimately be abolished and primary school leaving certificate will be based on continuous assessment of pupils and not on the results of a single examination.

The award of the junior secondary school certificate will be similarly being based on the continuous assessment method. By this is implied that the respective school will issue certificate to their pupils.

Examination of students will now based not only on academic work in the classroom which falls mainly into the cognitive domain but also on the effective behaviour of the pupils and psycho-motive and effective domains of the pupils. Through out the three years, students will have continuous weekly assessment and at the end of the third year, there will be a terminal test carrying 40% while the continuous assessment will carry 60%.

Continuous assessment is the best systematic method of evaluating a Childs performance without the psychological strains and stresses of the “One show” examination which leads to examination leakages and other examination malpractices.

Continuous assessment will however, not be successful without the dutiful commitment, diligence and sacrifice on the part of the teachers. The task is difficult and calls for dedication, objectivity and handwork on the part of the teachers, counselors and all those involved in the day-to-day running of the school.

The assessment must be valid and reliable in the sense that it must measure what it is supposed to measure and should consistent result from time to time. Critics of continuous assessment however, feel that since it is left most of the time in the hands of the class teacher there may be subjective factors involved such as under favuourtism of certain students and victimization of others whom the teachers may hate.

One of the aspects of the 6-3-3-4 system of education is the introduction of guidance and counseling services. The assessment should infact be used for guidance counseling purposes. This is why it is said that continuous assessment is oriented, guidance and counseling for the 6-3-3-4 educational system is aimed primarily at providing a frame work as well as a practical technique that will prove useful towards assisting teachers, counselors and school administrators in the successful implementation of this system of education in Nigeria. Never before in the history of Nigerian education is system the role of guidance counselors realistically needed than now it must be emphasized that human-interest attitudes and capabilities are varied. Any realistic educational programme ought to make into cognizance the varied nature of human potentials and cater for them.

The growing need for carrier guidance in schools is pre-directly on the national that no body can choose what he knows nothing about. If guidance services are to make a significant contribution to manpower development they should be aimed at assisting the students to make social, personal educational and vocational choices and adjustments. Appreciate information on decision making should be made available to children in order to guide their decision.

Every child should by the time he has completed secondary school be prepared for gainful employment or maximum employment and the society. Teachers, councilors and principals are obligated to provide that occupational preparation for all children including handicapped and educationally disadvantaged children. Since student fund it difficult to know their areas of specialisation, it is only through counseling that they could be taught how and where they fit in. the aim is to make people select careers in the realistic sense almost productivity and creativity and with this, people can realize that there is value and pride in any chosen vocation.

One of the greatest problems a principal is likely to encounter is the implementation of the 6-3-3-4 programme is in deciding at the end of the Junior secondary school which students should continue to the senior secondary school. In making this choice the principal would require the services of the school guidance counselors. Guidance and counseling is therefore an important instrument for successful implementation of the new national policy on education. A lot needs to be done to enhance guidance and counseling in our schools.


This survey has been able to establish through available statistical data that there are implications of the 6-3-3-4 educational and skill acquisition scheme in Junior Secondary School in Abakaliki urban of Ebonyi state. The result of this study has shown that there is need for more commitment to enable the educational system to be achieved by the government, communities and philanthropic organisations and individuals. The focus must continue to be education for national development and integration and education for rural transformation and renewal.


1. In the previous chapter, the result of the data colleted in the course of this study was discussed and in view of the out come of this survey, the following recommendation are put forward. Educationists have to prevail on the government to embark on a programme of mass enlightenment to educate both the teacher and the society on the implications of the new educational scheme and the prospects there in.

2. The federal government should continue to give and sustain the programme financially to enhance its success bearing in mind that the programme is a capital intensive project.

3. Educationists should be encouraged to provided and write the relevant textbooks suitable for the 6-3-3-4 educational system.

4. Steps should be taken to provide enough workshops for the teaching of the new subjects that require workshop.

5. More vocational technical qualified teachers should be employed to teaching new subjects such as wood work, metal work, auto-mechanics and technical drawing including electronics and carpentry.

6. In order to ensure that the objectives of continuous assessment and guidance and counseling are met, intensive pre-services and in-service programme for teacher should be mounted.

Limitation of Study

The investigator could not work so extensively owning to time limit and adverse financial constraint. For this reason, the investigator restricted his study to Abakaliki urban of Ebonyi State, mainly because of contiguity of sources of data.

Another limiting factor was the unco- operative attitude of some subjects. Some were reluctant to respond to all items listed in the questionnaire. Others did not respond at all for undisclosed and disclosed reason which include pressure of work (time) unavailability of the right subjects two are to respond, among other reasons.

Suggestion for the Further Research

In considering limitation and the findings of this study, the researcher suggests the following areas for further research.

1. As this study was restricted to Abakaliki urban area of Ebonyi State. The researcher suggests that similar study by carried out in other states of the federation so that generalization could be made.

2. Since secondary education includes both the junior and senior components it is suggested that a similar study that will focus on senior secondary education is conducted.



Section A. Background information

Please kindly supply the information below with to you and your school.

1. Name of your school——————————————

2. Your sex——————————————————-

3. Your highest qualification————————————

4. Your Area of specialisation ———————————–

5. The subject (5) you teach————————————

6. Number of period per week———————————–

Section B Implementation of JSS

Please for each of the statements hat follow, state your degree of agreement or disagreement by ticking (v) at appropriate column.

Please note that

SA – Strongly agree

A – Agree

A – Disagree

SD – Strongly disagree



S/N Questionnaire item SA A D SD

1 Continuous assessment is an important aspect of junior secondary education

2 In you opinion teaches generally have the skills to conduct continuous assessment.

3 In your opinion, continuous assessment is effectively conducted in your school

4 Guidance and counseling services are important aspect of JSS

5 You have competent personnel for guidance and counseling.

6 In your opinion, guidance and counseling service are effective in your school.

7 There is a functional introductory workshop in your school.

8 In your opinion, the workshop is fully. Actualized.

9 In your opinion, the facilities, tools and equipment in the workshop are adequate.

10 In your opinion, the qualifications of technical teachers in your school are satisfactory.

11 In your opinion, apart from proceeding to senior secondary school to JSS graduates from your school possess sufficient skills to enter employment.

6-3-3-4 System Of Education For Junior Secondary Schools – Implication

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